Friday, March 13, 2020

The Importance of Core Competencies to the organisation The WritePass Journal

The Importance of Core Competencies to the organisation INTRODUCTION The Importance of Core Competencies to the organisation INTRODUCTION  The Importance of Core Competencies to the organisation1. Facilitates strategy development2.   Encourages innovation 3.   Enforces recruitment and selection process Identifying Core CompetenciesLimitations of the ApproachCONCLUSIONBIBLIOGRAPHYRelated INTRODUCTION In this assignment, I will aim to evaluate this statement as it relates to the overall corporate strategy within a corporation. I will state whether managers are required to rethink their understanding of the corporation and whether this concept is still relevant today. I will illustrate my understanding of the concept by drawing on examples of different organisations. Finally, I will conclude by agreeing whether it is crucial for managers to re think their ideas of managing core competencies as it relates to the corporations they operate in both in the present and in the future. The concept of understanding corporations is based on the definition of core competencies. Prior to the 1990’s Prahalad and Hamel suggested that our understanding of corporations was defined as a collection of Strategic Business Units (SBUs). The SBU system was apparently flawed. This is because, each business unit operated independently from the corporation, with the risk of losing its corporate image. The system failed to appreciate the component parts of the corporation which delivered the corporate business strategy, in terms of resources, processes and people. There was an obvious need to radically change the concept of business management within this area. Subsequently, it led to the suggestion that corporations should function as a group of core competencies. This concept set out the framework for managers to establish and acknowledge their competencies. Core competencies can be defined as the skills and intentions which enable a corporation to leverage its resources.   Resources may either be tangible or intangible. Tangible resources, as the name suggest are those visible possession of the firm, they are categorised as land, and building equipment or machinery. Core competencies in this case, can be referred to as intangible resources which are non- visible assets of the corporation. Contrary to characteristics tangible resources they are quite difficult to acquire and recognise. This is because of the processes involved in identifying and developing them. Managers should concentrate on integrating skills throughout all aspects of the corporation. By understanding those core competencies that lead to successful growth, managers are able to formulate ways to reach and stretch these resources towards new goals as the environment changes. It is required that managers acknowledge their own competencies and align them with that of the corporation. Competencies are not only based on individual skills but rather a collection of skills across the corporation. (Fundamentals of Strategy Gerry Johnson, Kevan Scholes and Richard Whittington page 65) Mastering Strategic Management – Tim Hannagan page 13 The competency approach enables the recognition of unique and distinctive resources. Every organisation is unique in terms of its resources and this is relevant with regards to the scope and extent of its core competencies.   By evaluating a corporation’s core competencies managers are able to recognise strengths and weaknesses, using this valuable information to identify the key areas that it may build on but more importantly areas which needs improvement.   Managers can decide which skills require further development or in this global environment, what areas can be exploited outside the firm. By examining these areas an organization can correctly manage its day to day activities and if necessary eliminate the areas that are not beneficial to the set organization. (The Changing Nature of Organizations page 99)   The Importance of Core Competencies to the organisation Once managers have a clear understanding of their core competencies and design ways of leveraging them within and outside the corporation. They are able to achieve successful growth. This results in gaining a competitive edge.   Below, I will outline the interrelationship between core competencies and the definition of a corporation itself. They include: (1) Facilitates strategy development, (2) Encourages innovation and (3) Enforces recruitment and selection 1. Facilitates strategy development Unless the strategy that a corporation adopts is centred on its strengths and not its weaknesses it will never archive its set goals. The exploration and further development of any corporation core competencies is of utmost importance in strategy development. The knowledge and understanding of these provide managers the information needed to identify opportunities in the business environment and the necessary resources to take advantage of these (Strategic Intent) (Mastering Strategic Management- Tim Hannagan pg13) (Long term corporate sustainability through competitive advantage) Porter claimed in 1996, that a company can outperform rivals only if it can establish a difference that it can preserve. Only when a manager is able to identify his/her corporation strengths and core competencies can the organization create opportunities and overcome the challenges it faces from competitors. The key advantage is that, the corporation is able to differentiate themselves from their competitors, gaining a competitive edge impossible to imitate. 2.   Encourages innovation The concept of core competencies encourages companies to diversify. It is essential that managers drive the core competencies of the corporation to reach its full potential, creating effective and profitable use. Innovation is interlinked with a company’s core competency. Competencies encourage the formation of knowledge, skills and abilities. This could be further extended to motivation. Competency models dictates and evaluates ideal patterns for employee performance. Through creativity employees are encouraged to generate ideas with regards to problem solving, in turn analysing these approaches and find suitable solutions. Innovation encourages employees to constantly look for ways to improve the organisation in terms of profit generation and competitive advantage. This is carried out by gathering useful sources of information through utilising available technologies. The innovative organisation should encourage staff to use their initiative and offer rewards for their creativity. (business-strategy-innovation.com) An example might be Apple: Apple sets the standard for innovation, under the legendary leadership of Steve Jobs. The company cultivates innovation from its staff fostering new ideas and launching successful products such as iPod, iTunes, iPhone and iPad. Apple seizes opportunities in the marketplace to simulate growth by leveraging its system of employees, customers, supplies, partners and global networks. (http://creativityandinnovation.blogspot.com) 3.   Enforces recruitment and selection process Competencies are effective because they dictate behaviours required to achieve business strategy. On this assumption, the assessment of competencies is one means of selecting employees. Ideally, competencies will enable organisations to form a model of the kinds of employees it wishes to attract through recruitment. (Human Resource Management by Bratton and Gold pg 247-248) HRM (Boom and Sparrow, 1992, p.13) claimed that competency frameworks lie at the heart of all approaches in order for the objectives of the corporation to be aligned. This is achieved through various human resource activities of recruitment and selection, appraisal, training and rewards. Core competencies enhance a common understanding of effective behaviour in the workplace and provide a basis for more consistency in performance management practices. (Whiddett and Hollyforde.2003). (Human Resource Management by Bratton and Gold pg 247-248 An example might be The Virgin Group: The Virgin brand is very much unique. The most distinctive competency is that of its owner Sir Richard Branson. His leadership style and entrepreneur skill has proved an asset to the firm, which other organisations are unable to replicate. One can describe the Virgin Group recruitment and selection process highly intensive. Their systematic approach allows the selection of employees who meets specific criteria. This competency, coupled with Branson leadership skills forms intellectual and human capital which is distinctive, therefore, impossible for other firms to copy. Identifying Core Competencies Identify core competencies highlights areas of expertise and instructs managers to focus on important areas within a corporation.   With reference to the statement by Prahalad and Hamel,’ managers will be judged on their ability to identify, cultivate and exploit their core competencies.   It is acknowledged that this approach presents a degree of difficulty for managers. As a guideline manager can utilise the three conditions suggested by Prahalad and Hamel to determine core competencies. They are: (a) Potential to wide variety of markets (b) Contribute significantly to the perceived customer benefits of the end product and (c) difficult for competitors to imitate. These conditions assist managers to address the difficulties stated earlier. Once adopted will assist to identify the activities or resources which contribute to the competitive advantage of the corporation or those which are unlikely to compete with rivals. In this section, I will go on to explain further these conditions which will be fulfilled with examples of corporations where this has been the case. (a)   Potential access to a wide variety of markets The core competency must create opportunities for entrance into new industries to sustain competitive advantage and growth. An example might be TESCO: The supermarket initially started behind its rivals Sainsbury’s and ASDA in terms of market penetration, size and quality. TESCO’s corporate strategy was to establish itself as a quality entrant. This strategy has proven effective since, the supermarket sector is now dominated by Tesco.   Management adopted an evolutionary policy which created a base for expansion and a reputation for size and quality. As a result, this rejuvenated the business.   The company leveraged expansion into different markets, enabling Tesco to maintain its position as one of the world’s largest retailers. (checksure.biz) The Grocers: The Rise and Rise of Supermarket Chains by Seth, Andrew. Randall, Geoffrey. Publication: London Kogan (netlibrary.com.) (Mastering Strategic Management, Tim Hannagan pg 25) (b)   Contribute significantly to the perceived customer benefits of the end products The core competency must be perceived by customers to providing value. Customers are then willing to pay the maximum price. This provides key insights into customer’s needs and preferences An example might be Dell computers: Dell has completely re-invented the business model, the company has created a niche market through producing manufacturer-to order’ personal computers for consumers. Through internet technology, customers are able customise components of the personal computer to suit their needs and process orders online via the Dell website. The company has promised to deliver complete computer system configuration and to assemble computer system according to customer specifications.   In addition, the company has deployed online customer service representatives and online chat forums dedicated to customer concerns. (Supply Chain Strategy: The Logistics of Supply Management by Frazelle Edward. pg 277) (netlibrary.com.) Key to Dell’s strategy is its warehousing and logistics technology. The company avoids the need to anticipate stock overflow and stores finished goods in large warehouses. This reduces the need for in-house sorting. This work is done in the sorting centre. This new logistics model has enabled Dell to operate and efficient storage and delivery system with the company achieves significantly higher financial returns than their competitors. The key to success is the substitution of information for inventory and work content. (Supply Chain Strategy: The Logistics of Supply Management by Frazelle Edward. pg 278) (netlibrary.com) (c)   Difficult for competitors to imitate The core competency should create uniqueness which is distinctive to the organization.   The key here is ensuring that the competency is better than competitors which aren’t easily copied. An example might be Coca Cola: Coca Cola is the global leader of bottled beverages. The key competency lies within its brand name. It is the best known product in the world and its popularity has truly made it universal. There is a distinctive taste of the company’s products which is impossible for competitors to imitate. The company provides a powerful portfolio of beverages to its customers and consumers. This includes carbonated drinks, bottled water and packaged juices. With an increased focus on marketing the company continuously aims to extend existing brands and explore new beverage segments in different markets.   This enables the company to capture and maximise its growth.   The company focus is on innovation through advanced marketing intelligence systems. Coca Cola is able to execute and refine its channel-marketing and multi-segmentation strategies. The company is very keen to contribute to the local and global community. Coca-Cola provides sponsorships particu larly to sporting events, such as the Olympics, FIFA World Cup and UEFA European Championships.   This allows, continued recognition of the brand, key to the company’s success. www.coca-colafemsa.com Limitations of the Approach The core competency approach has proven beneficial to the managers in terms resource based management.   Below I will highlight a few disadvantages to this approach as they relate to the (a) suitability, (b) adaptability and (c) sustainability within corporations. The aim here is to provide managers with the necessary tools to undertake practical decisions which affect the performance of the corporation. (a) Suitability – This point highlights that managers should incorporate system to support resources within the corporation. Inadequacy will impact negatively on the corporation. The corporation must be capable in creating activities catered to the building and maintaining of resources.   (Building The Capability to perform by Kim Warren pg229) In addition, the three tests recommended by Prahalad and Hamel to identify core competencies in practice may prove demanding for managers. As a result, managers tend to produce an exhausted list of traits they would like the corporation efficient in. There is an obvious confusion between personal competencies and corporate ones. Corporations usually evaluate their competencies firstly, on the personal level rather than referring to generic competencies that apply to the firm as a whole. (b) Adaptability Managers fail to recognise that core competencies can be applied to every aspect of the corporation. There is a tendency to believe that it extends only to customers.   Any competency which fails to satisfy a customer’s need is deemed a liability. The resource based view states clearly that this approach is inaccurate. It is obvious, that some competencies may indirectly contribute to adding value for customers.   An example might be that of HR department, the main function includes recruiting, appraising and developing staff across many functions invisible to customers. (Competitive strategy Dynamics by Kim Warren pg230) The three tests recommended by Prahalad and Hamel to identify core competencies in practice, may prove demanding to organisations. As a result, what tends to emerge is a wish list of what the organisation would like to be good at. Part of the problem is that there is  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   confusion between personal competencies and corporate ones. Companies are usually tempted to start on the personal level when pursuing competencies. The solution is for companies to synthesize the skills of their people into generic competencies that apply to the firm as a whole. (The Changing Nature of Organizations pg99) (c) Sustainability-This addresses the issue that valuable competencies may reside only among certain people. Shockingly this may not include senior managers. The danger here is, if the people depart, so too, the competencies. A typical example already mentioned is the case of Sir Richard Branson and Virgin Atlantic.   Similarly this can be applied to Apple and Steve Jobs. The disadvantage of having this key competence is at the same time creating a barrier for imitation by your competitors but also difficulty in finding a suitable substitution. (The Changing Nature of Organizations pg 100) CONCLUSION Throughout the century our understanding of corporations has evolved dramatically. This understanding has been further influenced through the development of management theories. A primary example is that of Prahalad and Hamel. They have fuelled a radical re- thinking of the term corporation and the necessary guidelines for managers to execute their core competencies successfully. I believe that, this is the concept by which we understand corporations today. Hopefully, I have provided adequate evidence to support this concept and explained its importance for managing resources effectively within modern corporations. In addition, I have attempted to illustrate the inter-relationship between cultivating and exploiting key resources in order to establish corporation identity. I have shown this with examples of TESCO, Virgin, Dell and Apple. The fundamentals of this concept will be explored further as corporations seek to cope with external and internal pressures of the business environment. As such, managers need to be skilful and proactive in designing new and innovative ways of developing their core competencies. Again, I emphasize that managers should carefully assess the corporation and its desired goal. In doing so they are able determine the appropriate approach to build their core competencies. In this volatile business environment the future remains a mystery. By no means will this change our understanding of the corporation. The key to cultivating core competencies is ultimately gaining competitive advantage. It will be interesting to see how managers will embrace opportunities to sustain these valuable resources. BIBLIOGRAPHY Blogging Innovation (Internet) business-strategy-innovation.com/wordpress/2011/04/innovation-competency-model Accessed 25/04/2011 Creativity And Innovation Driving Business Innovation Index (Internet) http://creativityandinnovation.blogspot.com Accessed 25/04/2011 HRM (Boom and Sparrow, 1992, p.13) Supply Chain Strategy: The Logistics of Supply Management by Frazelle Edward. pg 278 Leeds Metropolitan Library online (Internet) netlibrary.com.ezproxy.leedsmet.ac.uk/Reader/   Accessed 22/04/2011 Check Sure Instant online credit check (Internet) checksure.biz/ftse_100_companies/tesco-plc.asp Accessed 22/04/2011 Mastering Strategic Management, Tim Hannagan pg 25) Human Resource Management- Theory and Practice, 4th Edition by Bratton and Gold pg 247-248 Fundamentals of Strategy Gerry Johnson, Kevan Scholes and Richard Whittington page 65 The Grocers: The Rise and Rise of Supermarket Chains by Seth, Andrew. Randall, Geoffrey. Publication: London Kogan Coca- Cola FEMSA (Internet) coca-colafemsa.com/femsa/web/conteudo_en.asp?idioma=1tipo=27617conta=44id=73211 Accessed 24/04/2011 The Financial Time guide to strategy how to create and deliver a useful strategy by Richard Koch Competitive Strategy Dynamics by Kim Warren London Business School

Tuesday, February 25, 2020

Compensation and Benefits in PAC Resources Inc Research Paper

Compensation and Benefits in PAC Resources Inc - Research Paper Example The merit bonus system was implemented in the organization so as to enhance overall creativity and innovation. It can be stated that this system was a key driver in context of organizational productivity. Bonuses in PAC was considered equivalent to compensation given to employees (Gusdorf, 2011). Though it was a method to achieve better results but there is no such return observed on the investment made by the firm towards such bonus system. This system can be improved by reducing the bonus amount and making the entire system centered towards high level of performance. A reward system in any organization needs to be motivating as it is the only factor which can increase the level of performance of employees. There are various ways to make a reward system motivating such as designing a system which will not discriminate amongst employees and benefits will be provided to those who have set desired level of performance. The entire system can be divided into multiple components where not only top level performers will be rewarded but even those will be given rewards who have tried to achieve desired performance level. Along with this the entire approach should be focused towards giving appraisals as well as monetary rewards since both of them are highly motivating factors. In an organization where bonus system is a common factor and is implemented from many years, in such a scenario lot of conflict arises when such a system is discontinued. The first consequence is that employees start to lose their motivational level. This lack of enthusiasm has a great impact on overall productivity of the organization. Secondly, it even initiates negativity in the workplace as employees begin to feel that their pay is being cut by the management. This reduces the percentage of extra effort which was previously given by employees. Â  

Sunday, February 9, 2020

Long term project of French spirit promotion in Germany Essay

Long term project of French spirit promotion in Germany - Essay Example Initially there has been a rumor that Ubi-France intended to purchase more number of shares towards acquisition of the German rival groups. The business situation was therefore tensed, and business relationship between France and Germany stained. Such rumors have been refuted by the officials from the Ubi-France, rather the officials have stressed over the need to secure market shares and achieve customer satisfaction. The company has adopted and implemented â€Å"the use of operational ideas and successful experiences from their operations in France†, and has integrated the after purchase services with the sales network, aimed at the establishment â€Å"of a comprehensive and high-efficiency sales-service network† (Warren, 2001). The German consumer market venture has recorded sales of more than twenty thousand units on monthly basis, which is forty percent greater than the previous solo performance of the company. Ubi-France has felt victim of the sociolinguistic challenges within German market. The multinational companies including Ubi-France have been accused for their involvement in such practices which generate â€Å"creativity-driven shock values, controversy and extreme individualism commonly accepted in the North American and Western European markets†. Ubi-France has experienced severe tribulations due to its â€Å"advertising language as culture-blind and bona fid†, and German market created great hurdle for the industry. It has been important for the company to implement congruence of the values, and avoid the existence of the cultural values in the organization in an implicit manner. It has been observed that the categorization of the organizational, departmental and employee values and behaviors on the basis of the cultural affinity has generated satisfaction among the employees, and has developed positive impact on their â€Å"commitment, absenteeism, turnover, mora le and

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Kants Moral Rationality Essay Example for Free

Kants Moral Rationality Essay In Kant’s book, The Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals, he believes that the â€Å"good will† is only good in itself and that reason is what produces the â€Å"goodness† of the â€Å"good will.† According to Kant, to act out of a â€Å"good will† means to act out of â€Å"duty,† or doing something because you find it necessary to do. Also, â€Å"good will† is will that is in accordance with reason. He believes everyone has a moral obligation or duty to do actions and he backs his theory up by discussing his idea of the â€Å"moral law. † The â€Å"moral law†, according to Kant, is when one is to act in accordance with the demands of practical reason, or acting done solely out of respect of duty. He says that moral laws will make you will in a certain way and is not subject to something further. Moral laws apply to all rational being in all places at all times. Overall, he believes that morality is on a basis of a priori, or preceding experience. This type of moral law commands us to be truthful from respect for the law and to do the right thing. Morality is about categorical commands that we ought to follow simply because it is the right thing to do. By categorical commands, or categorical imperative, it is supposed to provide us with a way to make moral judgments, which means it is a law. It is a way of coming up with the idea how any action can be rational. He means since all externals are taken from morality, moral commands must be categorical. In his book, Kant explains that he makes five things perfect clear: 1. All moral concepts have their origin entirely a priori in reason. 2. Moral concepts can’t be formed by abstraction from any empirical knowledge or, therefore, from anything contingent. 3. This purity or non-empiricalness of origin is what gives them the dignity of serving as supreme practical principles. 4. Any addition of something empirical takes away just that much of their influence and of the unqualified worth of actions performed in accordance with them. 5. Not only is it necessary in developing a moral theory but also important in our practical lives that we derive the concepts and laws of morals from pure reason and present them pure and unmixed, determining the scope of this entire practical but pure rational knowledge. (Kant 17) Kant goes on to discuss a relationship between the moral law and reason. He says that moral philosophy cannot be merely an empirical inquiry, but that is must be a metaphysical inquiry, and that it must be based on pure practical reason. Pure practical reason is the reason that drives actions without any sensible incentives. Kant also states that Morality is based neither on utility or nature, but on human reason. And this human reason tells us what we ought to do and when we obey this human reason, then we can say we are truly free. Finally, Kant discusses why he thinks that the moral is the rational. He believes that acting dutifully is the same as doing something because rationality tells you to do it. In section three, he discusses how moral principles come from yourself, or your rationality. And how one should treat the idea of will of every rational being as a universal law. Thus, rationality requires us to be moral.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

An Analysis of the Term Actually Incurred in Section 11(a) of Income Tax Action :: Accounting Education Finances Taxes Essays

An Analysis of the Term Actually Incurred in Section 11(a) of Income Tax Action Act No. 58 of 1962 1.SYNOPSIS Generally Accepted Accounting Practice includes statement AC000: Framework for the preparation and presentation of financial statements. This sets out broad and definitive rules governing the recognition of liabilities and income and expenditure in financial statements. Specifically the following paragraphs need to be considered: Recognition of liabilities: 91. A liability is recognised in the balance sheet when it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will result from the settlement of a present obligation and the amount at which the settlement will take place can be measured reliably... Recognition of expenses: 94. Expenses are recognised in the income statement when a decrease in future economic benefits related to a decrease in an asset or an increase of a liability has arisen that can be measured reliably. This means in effect that recognition of expenses occurs simultaneously with the recognition of an increase or a decrease in assets 95. Expenses are recognised in the income statement on the basis of a direct association between the costs incurred and the and the earning of specific items of income. This process, commonly referred to as the matching of costs with revenues, involves the simultaneous or combined recognition of revenues and expenses that result directly and jointly from the same transaction or other events; The fisc takes little notice of these rules when it comes to the recognition of expenditure for the purposes of taxation. It is the part of these rules that govern the general deduction provision that this report will examine. Section 11(a) of the South African Income Tax Act No. 58 of 1962 (as amended) reads as follows: 11. General deductions allowed in the determination of taxable income.- For the purpose of determining the taxable income derived by any person from the carrying on of any trade within the Republic, there shall be allowed as deductions from the income of such person so derived- (a) expenditure and losses actually incurred in the Republic in the production of the income, provided such expenditure and losses are not of a capital nature. The section defines the conditions that must be met for expenditure and losses to be allowed as deductions from income. The expenditure or losses must have been: Actu ssme nt In the Republic of South Africa. In the production of the income. Such expenditure or losses must not be of a capital nature. The section has to be read together with s23(g) 23. Deductions not allowed in the determination of taxable income.- No deductions shall be made in respect of any moneys, claimed as a deduction from trade, to the extent to which such monies

Monday, January 13, 2020

Dna Synopsis

DNA, RNA, PROTEINS STARTS WITH ? Name _______________________________ 1. DNA that is spread out in the nucleus of a non-dividing cell so it can be read is called _C_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ . 2. The group of 3 nitrogen bases in the mRNA message that is read together is called a _C_ __ __ __ __. 3. In dividing cells, the DNA is scrunched into _C_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ so it can be moved. 4. The mRNA message tells the ribosomes which _A_ __ __ __ __ _A_ __ __ __ to put in next when it makes a _P_ __ __ __ __ __ __. 5. Adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil are all _N_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _B_ __ __ __ __. . Chromosomes are made when DNA wraps around _H_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ to make bead-like structures called _N_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __. 7. M_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ RNA is copied from DNA in the _N_ __ __ __ __ __ __, edited, and transferred to _R_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ in the cytoplasm to be translated into a protein 8. The process of making a DNA copy is cal led _R_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __. 9. _N_ __ __ __ __ __ __ _A_ __ __ __ __ (like DNA and RNA) are made by joining _N_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ subunits together in a chain. 10. T_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ RNA has an _A_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ region that matches the codon on an m-RNA message. 11. The process of making an RNA message from DNA is called _T_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ and it happens in the _N_ __ __ __ __ __ __. 12. _R_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ RNA is made by the _N_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ and joins with _P_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ to make ribosomes. 13. Another name for protein synthesis is _T_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __. 14. _R_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ molecules attach to the _O_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ to turn off the lac operon when _L_ __ __ __ __ __ __ is NOT present. 5. _H_ __ __ genes are found in EUKARYOTIC cells and control growth and differentiation in developing embryos. 16. _S_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ are chromosomal mutations in whic h one nitrogen base replaces another in the gene code. 17. _F_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ mutations that happen at the beginning of the code are more harmful than those at the end because they change more of the message. 18. Small pieces of code called _I_ __ __ __ __ __ __ are cut out of the RNA message before it is read; while _E_ __ __ __ __ stay in the message and are expressed. 9. 3n or 4n plants with _P_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ are bigger and stronger, but humans with this condition don’t survive. 20. _T_ __ __ __ boxes help position the _R_ __ __ _P_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ enzyme. 21. _U_ __ __ __ __ __ is the nitrogen base NOT found in _D_ __ __ and _T_ __ __ __ __ __ __ is the nitrogen base NOT found in _R_ __ __. 22. Nitrogen bases made with _O_ __ __ ring are called _P_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ and nitrogen bases made with _T_ __ __ rings are called _P_ __ __ __ __ __ __. 23.In prokaryotic cells, a group of genes that work together is called an _O_ __ _ _ __ __ __. 24. James _W_ __ __ __ __ __ and Francis _C_ __ __ __ __ are the scientists who used Rosalind _F_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __’s X-ray images to figure out that DNA is shaped like a â€Å"twisted ladder† with _P_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ and _S_ __ __ __ __ __ forming the sides of the ladder, _N_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ bases forming the rungs, and _H_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ bonds acting as â€Å"glue† to hold the two sides together. (OVER) 25. I_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ are mutations in which a piece of code breaks, flips, and reattaches backwards; while _T_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ move a piece of DNA to another non-homologous chromosome. 26. In _G_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __’s mice-pneumonia experiment, lethal bacteria passed genetic material to harmless bacteria in a process called _T_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __. 27. According to _C_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __‘s rules when making DNA, _A_ __ __ __ __ __ __ always bonds with _T_ __ __ __ __ __ __ and _C_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ always bonds with _G_ __ __ __ __ __ __. 8. Viruses that infect bacteria (like the one used in _H_ __ __ __ __ __ __- _C_ __ __ __ __ ‘s blender experiment which proved DNA was the genetic material) are called _B_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __. 29. _T_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ are sequences of DNA that can jump from one location to another and are thought to be involved in increasing mutations in cells; they are sometimes called â€Å"_J_ __ __ __ __ __† genes. 30. A DNA molecule is said to be _A_ __ __ __- _P_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ because the two complementary strands run in opposite directions.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

The Scarlet Letter, By William Hawthorne - 879 Words

Pearl is the product of Hester’s, Dimmesdale’s and Chillingworth’s suffering and their actions. Like how humanity has been formed to the state that it’s currently in from the actions of the righteously wholesome and that of the despicably evil men of history, all of which comes from their suffering and how they dealt with said suffering. The actions of men reflect the actions and ethos of their gods. The suffering of history all lead to discovering the Americas, the puritans going to live there and then orchestrate the witch trials. Nathanial was shaped by this history of which his father was the magistrate. The hall of history lead to Nathanial Hawthorne writing The scarlet letter, the mirroring of this history and Hawthorne’s redemption for what his ancestors did. Pearl is the representation of the salvation of Hester Prynne, she is the representation of what Hester went through, she is a representation of the sin between Dimmesdale and Hester, an d the scarlet letter is a representation of Hawthorne’s attempted redemption for the actions of his ancestors. The puritans do not represent their god, but themselves. They have taken on the religion that of hatred and evil, they are delighted at the idea of dispensing corporal punishment. That is not Christ like nor god like, a god is not only omnipotent, omniscient, but also benevolent. The puritans are not in the least bit like this, and their evil deeds during the witchShow MoreRelatedWilliam Hawthorne s The Scarlet Letter1871 Words   |  8 Pagestechniques for romantic themes are light and setting. Hawthorne describes that details â€Å"are so spiritualized by the unusual light, that they seem to lose their actual substance, and become things of intellect† (Hawthorne, 35). This then leads him to describe that, â€Å"when one removes further from the actual, and nearer to the imaginative† (Hawthorne, 36), the romance writer can actually, â€Å"dream stra nge things and make them look like truth†(Hawthorne, 36). The purpose of this chapter is to serve basicallyRead More Scarlet Critique Essay870 Words   |  4 Pages The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne was written in 1850. It was based on the Puritans of the 1600s, which were revived in Hawthornes era. Hawthorne descended from Puritan heritage and harbored a sense of guilt and hatred for their way of life. He used many themes and literary techniques in The Scarlet Letter including symbolism and irony. He emphasized the individuals role in the community and the role of women in society. Hawthorne used romanticism as opposed to the classical correctnessRead MoreThe Scarlet Letter vs. the Crucible Essay703 Words   |  3 PagesThe edgy tale of The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne is comparable in many ways to Arthur Miller’s haunting play The Crucible. Both are set in Puritan New England in the 17th century and revolve around the harsh law enforcement of the time. However, The Scarlet Letter tells the story of a woman as she deals with her heavy Puritan punishment, whereas The Crucible follows hysteria as it spreads throughout an entire town. Hester Prynne, the main character of The Scarlet Letter, was found guilty forRead More Struggle between Good and Evil in The Scarlet Letter and Macbeth694 Words   |  3 PagesStruggle between Good and Evil in The Scarlet Letter and Macbeth It is said that â€Å"all conflict in literature is, in its simplest form, a struggle between good and evil.† Indeed, the fundamental conflict of human nature is that of darkness and light; and as a mirror to life, the conflicts in literature is not different from those in human nature. The struggle of good and evil is shown in Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter, which portrays the spiritual battle between and evil Read MoreEssay on Nathaniel Hawthornes Life in His Works1556 Words   |  7 Pagesauthor Nathaniel Hawthorne, there are different elements that influence his writings. His life included many times of trials, many joys, and many ancestors that caused some turmoil within his mind. Two of his major works are influenced almost directly by his background (Werlock). Nathaniel Hawthorne threw his life into every single piece of his writing. His experiences, background, and the setting in which his life took place are prominent in everything he wrote. Nathaniel Hawthorne was born inRead More Scarlet Letter Literary Criticism Essay883 Words   |  4 Pages Scarlet Letter Literary Criticism nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;All great stories have thorough reports from several different literary critics, what do they have to say on The Scarlet Letter? The Scarlet Letter in the nineteenth century is comparable to early twentieth century and late twentieth century criticism. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Early nineteenth century critics think the story was a tremendous work of art. A â€Å"Review of New Books† thought the story is â€Å"a genuine native romance†Read MoreEssay On John Hathorne878 Words   |  4 Pages   Ã‚  Ã‚   Nathaniel Hawthorne was greatly influenced by his great- great grandfather, John Hathorne, to develop the novel The Scarlet Letter.   John hathorne was involved in the persecution of several people in the Salem, Massachusetts (encyclopedia). JOHN HATHORNE AND THE SALEM WITCH TRIALS   Ã‚  Ã‚   In the year 1692, the Salem Witch Trials began and John Hathorne was chosen by Governor Sir William Phips to be a judge during the trials.   Hathorne believed that Satan had the power to pressure people into harmingRead MoreA Matter of The Heart Essay1446 Words   |  6 PagesSin is like an open sore that if left to fester will continue to grow worse not improve. Nathaniel Hawthorne examines this concept, as he seeks to connect with his reader. Many of his works revolve around a theme of sin and the effects it has on the mind, body, and soul. Sin is one of those permeating areas that has lasting consequences that affect all of life. Many characters in Hawthorne’s works go through their lives struggling as they try to cope with the guilt and shame associated with theirRead MoreRomanticism And Nathaniel Hawthorne s The Scarlet Letter1461 Words   |  6 PagesRomanticism and Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter Literary Romanticism was a literary movement that started in Europe toward the late 1700’s and reached America in the early 19th century just in time for its peak years. Originally sparked by the Industrial Revolution, it was a response to the political and social conditions of the time as well as a challenge to the new type of scientific exploration and rationalization of everyday life. Writing that was grand and inspired great feeling andRead MoreComparing The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthrone and The Crucible by Arthur Miller1394 Words   |  6 Pagesaccurately are The Scarlet Letter, by Nathaniel   Hawthorne, and The Crucible, by Arthur Miller. The Scarlet Letter displays a society that treats two people very differently who commit the sin of adultery together. The woman, Hester Prynne, admits her sin, is forced to always wear a scarlet letter A on her bosom, and is ostracized from society. The man, Reverend Dimmesdale, hides his sin from the world, is almost worshi pped by the townspeople, but is filled with the shame of his action. Hawthorne illustrates